How to Become a Successful Creature of Habit

Charles Duhigg of the New York Times recently wrote on the science of habit in humans. He writes:

“Most of the choices we make each day may feel like the products of well-considered decision making, but they’re not. They’re habits. And though each habit means relatively little on its own, over time, the meals we eat, how we spend our evenings, and how often we exercise have enormous impacts.”

While some may take this to mean there is a dubious lack of free will involved in our day-to-day lives, this is not the case. It is that habit is easier than “well-considered decision making.” While the fact that habits are easy can be a double-edged sword a conscious, mindful individual can use this to their advantage.

Duhigg explains that all habits are created in the same way, that we must “establish the right cues and rewards.” Duhigg sites a New Mexico State University study that looked at individuals who exercised at least three times a week.

What the study finds is very interesting. For many of the study’s participants their exercise routine began as a caprice, orr was generated from a sudden surplus of free time or a reaction to unexpected stress. What was it that reinforced their whim into habit? Cue and reward.
Duhigg writes:

“If you want to start running each morning, it’s essential that you choose a simple cue (like always lacing up your sneakers before breakfast or always going for a run at the same time of day) and a clear reward (like a sense of accomplishment from recording your miles, or the endorphin rush you get from a jog). But countless studies have shown that, at first, the rewards inherent in exercise aren’t enough.
So to teach your brain to associate exercise with a reward, you need to give yourself something you really enjoy — like a small piece of chocolate — after your workout.

Eventually, your brain will start expecting the reward inherent in exercise (“It’s 5 o’clock. Three miles down! Endorphin rush!”), and you won’t need the chocolate anymore. In fact, you won’t even want it. But until your neurology learns to enjoy those endorphins and the other rewards inherent in exercise, you need to jump-start the process.”

Cues and rewards can be anything and applied to any activity you wish to become a positive habit. If one is trying to learn to play the piano, learn a new language or be more vigilant about reading the news you must create a cue and reward. Listening to your favorite piano piece every evening after dinner, then allowing yourself to watch your favorite mindless sit com after practicing the piano could be one way to reinforce the positive habit of practicing the piano.

What habits will you change or create with this information?

Why is Maintaining Motivation So Difficult?

In a recent article by the Quiet Leadership Institute, they take a look at the concept of “deliberate practice” from the book Peak: Secrets of the New Science of Expertise by K. Anders Ericsson, PhD, a leading psychologist in the area of expertise and Robert Pool, PhD, well known science and living writer.

The QLI defines deliberate practice as the “breakdown of expertise into a series of smaller, attainable practices.” And states that a deliberate practitioner creates and follows through on structured activities that focus on a small area to improve on within their expertise. This concept is somewhat like the mindfulness training that practitioners of Eastern philosophies use.

The QLI article quotes a section of Peak that focuses primarily on motivation. The excerpt tells readers a hard truth we can all recognize – that when we decide to learn something new, like playing the guitar or learning a new language the initial energy, motivation and interest we feel can lessen over time, sometimes very quickly, and we stop practicing as often.

Ericsson and Pool tell us that there are two primary mental road blocks. First, that when we think about expert practitioners in our fields we often assume they have “some rare gift of willpower or ‘grit’ or ‘stick-to-itiveness’ that the rest of us just lack.”

Ericsson and Pool assert this is a mistake for two reasons. First, there is very little evidence to support the idea that we have a quantifiable pool of willpower from which to draw.

However, Ericsson and Pool write that the bigger problem of will power is:
“the myth of natural talent … once you assume that something is innate, it automatically becomes something you can’t do anything about. This sort of circular thinking – “The fact that I couldn’t keep practicing indicates that I don’t have enough willpower, which explains why I couldn’t keep practicing” – is worse than useless; it is damaging in that it can convince people that they might as well not even try.”

The authors analogize improving performance to weight loss saying that those who are successful in losing weight over the long term are people who have “successfully redesigned their lives, building new habits that allow them to maintain the behaviors that keep them losing weight in spite of all of the temptations that threaten their success.”

What People Value More: Autonomy vs. Prestige

A 2016 article from New York Magazine asks an interesting question about what people value more in a career – autonomy or prestige? Writer Melisa Dahl breaks down some interesting studies on the topic to get to the bottom of this question.

One study from the journal Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin researchers from three universities and three different countries tested more than 2,000 subjects and found that while it is true that people who start to gain power or prestige in their career want more of it, ultimately autonomy “quenches the desire for power.” The study stated that ultimately people prefer careers in which they able to do what they want, how they want.

In one experiment researchers asked people to imagine that the already had a career with a lot of freedom, but had an opportunity to make a career move that would grant them a high degree of influence. One in which they were managing a team of subordinates. he other half were asked to imagine the scenario the other way around: What if they already were managing a bunch of people but were offered the chance to trade that for more freedom?

People overwhelming chose freedom. Of those who were told to imagine they already had autonomy, a little less than three-fourths turned down the career move with more power and prestige. In the other group, in which participants were told to imagine they held a position of prestige, but were being offered a job with more autonomy well over half – around 65% – took the career path with more freedom.

Dahl notes that previous research reveals that power and prestige appeals to people when they think it will lead to autonomy, but once they realized being in charge involved a lot of extra responsibility and expectations in regards to subordinates, their interest faded quickly.
Dahl ends by telling readers that the new research does not account for compensation. She writes:

“Maybe a substantial bump in pay would make a difference here, and people would indeed be more willing to give up some of their autonomy in exchange for some cold, hard cash. Or maybe not — or maybe they would but would later regret the decision. These are questions for future research. For now, the overall message of this paper feels very true: Maybe all anyone really wants at work is to be left the alone.”